Efita Newsletter 1079, dated September 25, 2023

Efita Newsletter 1079, dated September 25, 2023
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Châtenay-Malabry (FR - 92290), September 25, 2023

EFITA newsletter / 1079 - European Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture, Food and the Environment

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Avant l'informatique / Before computers


Weekly newsletters about ICT in Agriculture in English and French
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AgTech: barriers to adoption

30 - 25/09/2023

VISION Conference

January 22-24, 2024, Glendale, AZ
The VISION Conference has firmly established itself as the premier gathering for forward-thinking executives in the ag tech community. This event serves as a critical platform where industry leaders come together to chart the strategic roadmap for the adoption of the latest innovative technologies and systems. Our primary focus is on the key drivers that will transform the agribusiness industry within the next 3 to 5 years.

VISION takes an immersive look at how new data and tech trends are fundamentally reshaping the agribusiness landscape. Discover the latest solutions that are revolutionizing how the industry operates, allowing for more efficient and sustainable production of food, feed, fiber, and fuel in the coming years.

VISION is not just a conference; it's an opportunity for cross-functional problem solving and collaboration. Join us for interactive sessions, insightful educational content, and executive-level networking that will empower you with the knowledge and connections needed to drive your organization forward.
See thevisionconference.com

Der Sämann, von Albin Egger-Lienz (1868-1926)

01 - 25/09/2023

Der Sämann, von Albin Egger-Lienz (1868-1926)

02 - 25/09/2023


> Unmanned tractor is already partially fulfilling high expectations
Dutch Arable farmer Jan Pieter Evenhuis was able to put the autonomous Steyr Expert 4130 to work.

> Weed control: Sentera launches new precision weed technology
Sentera announced the launch of its Aerial WeedScout technology, a precision weed control solution that reduces post-emergent herbicide application by up to 70%.

> Autonomous system: First autonomous Case IH Magnum with Raven conversion kit
At a field demo of Case IH in Austria, the machine manufacturer recently showed the first autonomous Case IH Magnum.

> Glyphosate: Research: loss of glyphosate would cost farmers and the environment
What would happen if glyphosate were no longer available?

> Soil health:  DNA soil analysis, what’s involved and the benefits it provides
DNA testing of the soil microbiome is becoming more common in many crop-growing countries.

> Planting: Variable planting: simple technique, difficult to define results
Variable planting based on variation in the soil is simple. Achieving results with it is something else.

> Why do wide tires cause deeper soil compaction? Science explains
A broader tire pushes its ground pressure deeper into the soil. This is why.

> Farming costs: Will AI and precision agriculture lower farming costs?
Farmers are seeking innovative ways to lower costs and improve profitability.
Read more

> Soil health: ‘Super wide tires or tracks conceal a deeper danger’
The pressure a farming machine exerts on the soil is a delicate balance between its weight and the surface area it touches.

> FIRA USA: Efficient lasers and hoes controlled by LiDAR sensors at FIRA USA
FIRA USA attracted a little over 2,000 visitors who saw various autonomous robots and smart weeders in action.

> Autonomous system: Mojow Autonomous Solutions advances autonomy with Versatile
The Canadese company Mojow, a developer of autonomous software for agricultural machines, announced a partnership with tractor manufacturer Versatile.

> Weed control: Sentera launches new precision weed technology
Sentera announced the launch of its Aerial WeedScout technology, a precision weed control solution that reduces post-emergent herbicide application by up to 70%.

> Autonomous tractor: Unmanned tractor is already partially fulfilling high expectations
Dutch Arable farmer Jan Pieter Evenhuis was only able to put the autonomous Steyr Expert 4130 to work.

> Variable planting: Variable planting: simple technique, difficult to define results
Variable planting based on variation in the soil is simple. Achieving results with it is something else.

> Autonomous system: First autonomous Case IH Magnum with Raven conversion kit
At a field demo of Case IH in Austria, the machine manufacturer recently showed the first autonomous Case IH Magnum.

> Claas, AgXeed and Amazone in first manufacturer-independent autonomy alliance
Claas, AgXeed, and Amazone, are collaborating to establish the world's first manufacturer-independent platform for autonomous technology.

> Regenerative: Let nature do more work with regenerative agriculture
Regenerative agriculture is based on healthy soil with high biodiversity in which nature works together with the farmer and the farmer with nature.

> Field robots: Calling all ag field and harvest robot sellers for 2024
Future Farming is relaunching its mission to update and enhance its Field Robots Buyer’s Guide for 2024. Be part of the ultimate agricultural robot buying guide – the fourth edition already.

> Acid-tolerance: Australian scientists develop acid-tolerant chickpea varieties
Scientists in Australia are working to give grain growers access to acid-tolerant chickpea varieties.

> NEXAT System: Nexat tool carrier bridges soil compaction
Terrakamp’s Nexat system generated a lot of buzz at the Farm Progress Show 2023.

> Autonomous tractors: ‘Pioneering farmer sees challenges and potential in unmanned tractor’
Dutch arable farmer Brian Salomé tests the autonomous Steyr tractor on his farm.

> Hybrid tractor: Hybrid Steyr Tractor a step further
Tractor manufacturer Case IH/Steyr showed a second version of the hybrid Steyr tractor.
See futurefarming.com

Average score obtained by country on reading assessments / Score moyen obtenu par pays aux évaluations en lecture

01 - 25/09/2023

Misery and disorder in the Sahel / Coups d'état en Afrique sub-saharienne : le bonheur de Poutine

02 - 25/09/2023

US Shortage of Ammunition / Pas assez d’armement

03 - 25/09/2023

NHS waiting list and inactivity because of long-term sickness / Incroyable liste d’attente au Royaume-Uni

04 - 25/09/2023

The Racial Murder Gap

05 - 25/09/2023

S&P 500 Index led by a minority of strong companies

06 - 25/09/2023

ADHD medication up / Trouble déficitaires de l'attention avec ou sans hyperactivité en hausse

08 - 25/09/2023

Safer States for Black Residents

09 - 25/09/2023

US vs World: normal US relative decline

10 - 25/09/2023

Global Ag Tech Initiative

> Robotics Plus Launches Multi-Use Autonomous Vehicle for Sustainable Orchard and Vineyard Production
Prospr automates a variety of tree crop tasks, including intelligent spraying, to improve efficiency and alleviate labor challenges.

> Agtonomy, On-Target Collaborate to Advance All-Electric Implement Ecosystems
The first all-electric, electrostatic smart sprayer prototype designed for specialty crop producers makes its public debut at FIRA USA.

> AMVAC: Trending Forward in Ag Technology
Discover how AMVAC is shaping the future of agriculture with its forward-thinking approach to technology. Through groundbreaking solutions and partnerships, AMVAC is at the forefront of agricultural innovation. Dive into their journey of enhancing crop protection and optimizing yield.

> Tech Hub LIVE Conference and Expo Celebrates Resounding Success in Des Moines, Iowa
This year's conference experienced unprecedented success with over 700 in attendance — a remarkable 15% growth from the previous year.

> AGCO to Build Sustainable Test Farm in North Dakota
”Dakota Smart Farm” is dedicated to developing sustainable farming practices and high-value retrofit precision technology solutions.

> Multispectral Imaging in Precision Farming and Its Applications in India
Multispectral imaging offers a data-driven approach to enhance crop health, optimize resource use, and revolutionize Indian agriculture.

> Pitch AgriHack 2023: Unleashing Agritech Innovation in Africa
Awarding a total prize pool of USD 45,000, the competition celebrated the brilliance of young minds that are reshaping the future of African agriculture.

> Five Experts to Share Insights at State of the Ag Tech Industry Webinar September 27
Our experts will explore the trends for the future advancement and also the barriers to the adoption of ag tech.

> Pyka and Dole Successfully Complete Trial Phase of Autonomous Spray Aircraft
Dole incorporates Pelican Spray to advance smart farming and sustainability goals.
See globalagtechinitiative.com


> Equilibrium & Bosch Growers submit winning bids for AppHarvest’s KY greenhouses, by Jennifer Marston

> ALORA reactivates dormant genes to unlock ‘best performing salt-tolerant rice plant in the world’, by Elaine Watson

> Cultivating change: How can sustainable agtech empower smallholder farmers in Latin America?

> Is Silicon Valley still killing agtech? By Sarah Nolet, Co-Founder & General Partner - Tenacious Ventures

> Data snapshot: Climate and forestry solutions notably absent from Indonesia’s agrifoodtech investment landscape, by Jennifer Marston

> Food companies aren’t all walking the talk on regenerative agriculture, says FAIRR investor network​, by Elaine Watson

See agfundernews.com

“Schnitter” [Reaper], von Albin Egger-Lienz – c. 1920, left figure in the painting “Drei Schnitter”

03 - 25/09/2023

Saemann und Teufel (1921)

04 - 25/09/2023

The Emperor Of Ultra-Processed Foods Has No Clothes, by Chuck Dinerstein, MD, MBA — July 17, 2023

According to the common narrative, ultra-processed foods are evil, unhealthy, and unnatural. But a new contrarian study in the Journal of Nutrition demonstrates that a diet containing 91% ultra-processed foods was far healthier than the typical American diet and, get this, well aligned with Dietary Guidelines for Americans. When it comes to shaming and blaming UPFs, the emperor has no clothes.
See acsh.org

Moravec's paradox analyzed by “Software is Feeding the World”
Moravec's paradox is the observation by artificial intelligence and robotics researchers that, contrary to traditional assumptions, reasoning requires very little computation, but sensorimotor and perception skills require enormous computational resources.

The principle was articulated by Hans Moravec, Rodney Brooks, Marvin Minsky and others in the 1980s.

Moravec wrote in 1988: It is comparatively easy to make computers exhibit adult level performance on intelligence tests or playing checkers, and difficult or impossible to give them the skills of a one-year-old when it comes to perception and mobility.
See ckarchive.com

AI can help to speed up drug discovery — but only if we give it the right data

Artificial-intelligence tools that enable companies to share data about drug candidates while keeping sensitive information safe can unleash the potential of machine learning and cutting-edge lab techniques, for the common good.

See nature.com

Op-ed: Big Ag Touts Its Climate Strengths, While Awash in Fossil Fuels, by Peter Lehner, September 14, 2023

Most of America’s farms are dependent on prodigious amounts of fossil fuels at every stage of production. Powerful PR firms have worked overtime in recent years to craft a narrative that highlight farms’ potential role in mitigating climate change, but the truth is that agriculture consumes 6 percent of the world’s fossil fuel energy, and the oil and gas industries rely on industrial agriculture for one of its largest and most lucrative markets.

From planting to harvest, farm machinery such as tractors and combines burn diesel fuel to churn out the raw materials for our food system. The freight trucks, locomotives, and inland barges that transport bulk harvested commodity crops and livestock significantly add to agriculture’s CO2 emissions.

Because farm machinery is often built to last, progress to electrify those vehicles is slow even though it holds huge untapped potential to reduce agriculture’s emissions
See civileats.com

Imagine the kind of technology that would drive farming’s future, by Amanda Zaluckyj, The Farmer’s Daughter USA, August 18, 2023

Technology, innovation, and farming go hand in hand. Venture onto any American farm and you’ll see technology in action. Over thousands of years, we’ve transitioned from farming with our bare hands to utilizing satellites and DNA to make our jobs easier and our fields more productive.

Can you imagine where we’ll go in the coming generations? (Well, assuming we still live on this planet and the Earth isn’t destroyed by a meteorite.) That’s exactly what I did — imagine. And I’ve come up with a wishlist of future agriculture tools, technology, and contraptions.
See agdaily.com

200-day moving average, key indicator by traders and market analysts for determining overall long-term market trends

11 - 25/09/2023

Not Cheap Green Flights

12 - 25/09/2023

Sick Brits

13 - 25/09/2023

Costly War Equipments

14 - 25/09/2023

Sub-Saharian Africa Stagnation

15 - 25/09/2023

Expensive Jewelry Madness

16 - 25/09/2023

Industry vs Services

17 - 25/09/2023

Lightweight recycled PET vs Carton

18 - 25/09/2023

Fantastic Heat Pumps

19 - 25/09/2023

Cargill less profitable but not too bad

20 - 25/09/2023

If there’s No Security, There’s No Agriculture, by Rotimi Williams, July 27, 2023
I’ve addressed the problem in another way as well: I’ve moved much of my operation into nearby West African countries, such as the Gambia and Senegal. I’m pleased to work in these places, which are calm compared with Nigeria. We deal with some petty theft and an occasional carjacking, but we also feel safe to farm.

Yet there is the matter of scale. The combined populations of Gambia and Senegal equal less than 10 percent of Nigeria’s population. We can produce a lot of rice for a lot of people—but surrendering huge parts of Nigeria’s best farmland to bandits comes with a high price. People in Nigeria and beyond are paying more for their food because of this lost opportunity.

Farmers in developing nations confront daunting challenges involving access to high-quality seeds and inputs, irrigation, tractors and implements, storage, transportation, et plus. We also need to attract investors and young people into the profession.

Before we can make real progress, pourtant, we must improve personal safety.

We’ll never achieve food security if we fail to provide farm security.
See globalfarmernetwork.org

Research aims to unlock dairy cattle’s genetic potential

Regulatory genes — genes that control how other genes are used — are responsible for 69 percent of the heritability of dairy cattle traits such as milk production and fertility.

According to a study published today in the journal Cell Genomics, this contribution is 44 percent more than expected and much higher than previous studies of human regulatory genes.

The findings, reported by a team of animal and human geneticists, could improve the efficiency of agricultural breeding programs. The study also helps solve the longstanding mystery of why mammalian genomes contain so much noncoding DNA.
See agdaily.com

Burro Mowing / EPTO Attach Pack

We'll be showing our new Burro mowing attach pack at FIRA - check it out here! Now, Burros can deliver roomba-like 24/7 autonomous mowing with a 50/50 duty cycle. Docks / mows / docks / mows.

Paired with our mission enabling Atlas autonomy, you can set up routes/areas/rows to mow online, and forget about the agony of mowing, with mowing in rows, areas and beyond on farm fully automated.
See video
See burro.ai

Gazette de vitisphere.com,
portail vitivinicole


Can Finance Save the Wolves? By Joakim Book - Sep 21, 2023 (Aux USA, le site humanprogress.org est un site libéral confiant dans la capacité du capitalisme à évoluer et s’auto-corriger… parfois sous la pression des opposants au capitalisme)

Rich city-dwellers tend to want thriving populations of charismatic predators like bears and wolves. Farmers with livestock usually have a different view.
Using some creative financing, we can align these otherwise incompatible interests.
Another way to achieve the same reshuffling of economic value is to have (generally wealthier) city-dwellers pay lavishly for ecotourism trips into areas where wolves are plentiful—like these projects in Spain’s Sierra de la Culebra. Some of the revenue streams should make it back to shepherds losing livestock to attacks or farmers who can credibly show the presence of wolves on their grounds (say, through wildlife cameras capturing their movements).

In Scandinavia, these conflicts become overwhelmingly political not only out of a lack of financial engineering but also because most compensation schemes are run by bureaucrats and financed by taxpayers. Vultures circle around political payouts as well as fresh carcasses.

Modeling by Anders Skonhoft at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology suggests that ex-ante payments for predator presence yield better outcomes than ex-post reimbursement of livestock damages. This is the animal husbandry equivalent to paying for not cutting down trees.

In the 1990s, the Swedish government introduced such an ex-ante scheme for the Sámi population and the reindeer they manage. Sámi herders routinely lose some 20 percent of their animals to carnivore attacks every year. By tying reimbursement to the presence of lynx and wolverine offspring rather than exact reindeer attacks, the scheme turns those most posed to disapprove of predators into their greatest defenders.

With the introduction of ecotourism in Africa and the Amazon, the same financial incentives have flipped loggers and poachers into guides, the enemies of predators becoming their greatest protectors. On a larger scale, the right financial structures—payouts, markets, and assets—can align the interest of unsolvable political enemies.


What Engels’ (Least) Favorite Color Teaches about Capitalism

Dyes used to be incredibly expensive. In 4th century Rome, “Tyrian purple” was worth three times as much as gold.

That began to change in 1856 when a British researcher synthesized aniline, bringing purple duds to the masses.

Tellingly, Engels hated it.
See humanprogress.org

Oil Spills

Oil spills are disasters that can have severe social, economic, and environmental impacts. They are the release of crude oil or refined petroleum products from tankers, rigs, wells, and offshore platforms.

These spills are most common in marine environments, but can also occur on land. They can have disastrous consequences for local ecosystems, and be expensive due to the loss of oil and the costs involved in their clean-up.

The number of oil spills and the quantity of oil that is spilled from tankers — container ships transporting oil — has fallen substantially in recent decades.

On our new page, you can find all our data, visualizations, and writing related to oil spills from tankers, for which consistent, high-quality global data is available.

But not all oil spills come from tankers. They can also come from other sites, such as offshore oil rigs and damaged pipelines.

The world’s largest (and most well-known) event was Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. This disaster was caused by an explosion in a drilling rig. The US Government estimates that 4.9 million barrels of oil were released (equivalent to around 700,000 tonnes).

Tracking non-tanker oil spills is essential, but we are unaware of any global, updated databases that include this. Filling this gap would be critical to global environmental data and monitoring.


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Conservation Agriculture is a Tool, Not a Goal, by Sarah Singla, December 10, 2020
The purveyors of news try to portray the ordinary practices of mainstream agriculture as harmful. If you only watch this kind of television, you may begin to believe the fairy tale that we can feed the world with tiny farms operated by happy families that spend most of their time watching birds.

This is nonsense. Farmers are 21st-century innovators who apply amazing technologies to the challenges of our moment. These include the latest soil conservation techniques as well as cutting-edge seeds that help us cope with climate change.

We do all of this because we’re resilient—and know that our job as farmers is to keep producing food, even in the harshest of circumstances.

With Académie d'agriculture de France, we had the opportunity to meet Sarah Singla at her farm.

A fantastic visit!

Crop Yields

Improvements in crop yields have been essential to feeding a growing population while also reducing the environmental impact of food production. Increasing crop yields can reduce the amount of land we use for agriculture.

Crop yields might seem far from being one of the world’s largest problems. But, if yields and labor productivity do not increase, it will have far-reaching consequences for global poverty and the protection of the environment. For people and the planet, it’s one of our most important problems to work on.


Sitzende Bäuerin nach links gewendet (1925), Kohle auf braunem Papier, von Albin Egger-Lienz

07 - 25/09/2023

Bauer in Tracht mit Stutzen, circa 1895, von Albin Egger-Lienz (1868–1926), Schloss Bruck, Lienz, Österreich

08 - 25/09/2023

Increasing agricultural productivity across Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the most important problems this century

To grow food you need two things: some land and some of your time. Land and labor are two of agriculture’s primary inputs. To build a food system that works for people and the planet, humanity needs to achieve high productivity in both of them.

But across much of Sub-Saharan Africa, the productivity of both input factors is low.

In this article, we explain why agricultural productivity across the region needs to improve to reduce hunger, poverty, and the destruction of biodiversity — and why this makes it one of the world’s most pressing problems.


Artificial intelligence is transforming our world — it is on all of us to make sure that it goes well

How AI gets built is currently decided by a small group of technologists. As this technology is transforming our lives, it should be in all of our interest to become informed and engaged.
See ourworldindata.org

Glyphosate ban will have economic impacts on European agriculture but effects are heterogenous and uncertain, by Robert Finger, Niklas Möhring & Per Kudsk
See doi.org

If there’s No Security, There’s No Agriculture, by Rotimi Williams, July 27, 2023

If farmers like me feel safe enough to grow food, we will continue to venture into the rural areas where 99 percent of agricultural lands are located and grow the food required to supply the nutrition a growing population needs.

Unfortunately, violence has devastated agriculture here in Nigeria. Murders, kidnappings, and robberies have made it impossible for me to farm.

I was Nigeria’s second-largest producer of rice, which is a staple of our national diet. The demand for rice is increasing, while the supply has been hampered. I’m now letting much of my land lie fallow with no farming activity ongoing. That means not a single grain of rice will come from 48,000 hectares that should produce it in abundance.

I’m not sure when I’ll start farming that land again, or even if I’ll start again.
See globalfarmernetwork.org

Surinam carbon emissions up

21 - 25/09/2023

De Santis Programme

22 - 25/09/2023

US Pump Prices up

23 - 25/09/2023

More thefts

24 - 25/09/2023

Share of workers employed in Agriculture vs. GDP per capita

25 - 25/09/2023

New Missions for the Black Soldier Fly

The black soldier fly can help reduce household and agricultural waste, serve as feed for poultry and fish (protein substitute), and reduce methane emission from landfills.
See video produced by the Agricultural Research Service

One of Europe’s Most Endangered Birds Is Bouncing Back, by Anne Pinto-Rodrigues

Twenty years of habitat restoration has helped the once critically endangered Azores bullfinch, September 14, 2023


Rhino numbers rebound as global figures reveal a win for conservation, by Patrick Greenfield, 22 Sep 2023

Tally rises to 27,000 but is still a far cry from former half a million, and Javan and Sumatran rhino remain critically endangered.


Indian Agriculture Output

26 - 25/09/2023

US farms (1) – Source USDA

27 - 25/09/2023

US farms (2) – Source USDA

28 - 25/09/2023

US farms (3) – Source USDA

29 - 25/09/2023

Bergmaeher, 1907, von Albin Egger-Lienz (1868–1926), Leopold Museum, Wien, Österreich

09 - 25/09/2023

Mittagessen - 2. Fassung, von Albin Egger-Lienz (1868–1926), 1910, Leopold Museum, Wien, Österreich

10 - 25/09/2023

The bacteria that can capture carbon, By Isabelle Gerretsen, 30th August 2023

With global greenhouse gas emissions reaching an all-time high last year, many scientists and world leaders are now arguing that new technologies which can capture carbon and store it underground are needed to help the world meet its climate goals.

And some believe that nature could provide a powerful solution. Microbes – the miniscule organisms that are found all around us but are invisible to the naked eye – play a vital role in capturing carbon and affecting the climate. Plus they could also be harnessed to tackle other environmental problems – such as the drastic fall in pollinator populations.

Scientists have recently discovered a microbe, a type of cyanobacteria, off the coast of a volcanic island near Sicily that eats carbon dioxide (CO2) "astonishingly quickly".

The island of Vulcano is surrounded by underwater hydrothermal vents, which are rich sources of CO2. These vents are located in shallow water, which means they are exposed to sunlight (unlike vents in the deep ocean). All this has created the perfect environment for the evolution of microbes that use CO2 as a food source.
Introducing microbes to the environment in large quantities could disrupt local ecosystems, while carbon storage may not be permanent, she says. "When the microbes die, there's potential for the carbon to be released back into the environment unless further steps are taken."

"Before scaling up the use of any microbial solutions, it's imperative to understand any potential environmental repercussions. We need to ensure the cure isn't worse than the ailment," she adds.

Still, scientists are hopeful that microbes can help make our planet healthier and more sustainable.

"Compared to other [carbon capture] solutions, microbes are infinitely replicable," says Tierney. "While there is no silver bullet for tackling climate change, it is really exciting to find an organism that is a really high performing engine for carbon capture."

See bbc.com
Island of Vulcano (splendid!)

Italian Chef


AI systems perform better than humans in language and image recognition in some tests

The language and image recognition capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) systems have developed rapidly.

The chart here zooms in to the last 20 years of AI development. It shows human and AI performance on tests across five domains: handwriting recognition, speech recognition, image recognition, reading comprehension, and language understanding.

Just 10 years ago, no machine could reliably perform language or image recognition at a human level. However, AI systems have become much more capable, and are now beating humans in these domains, at least in some tests. In other important ways, AI systems still perform worse than humans.

Learn more about this on our updated AI topic page, which now includes several other key insights as well as a large collection of new charts and data.

We need more testing to eradicate polio worldwide

The world is very close to eradicating polio. Two out of three wild strains have already been eradicated, and just one remains in circulation. The estimated number of polio cases each year has fallen dramatically over the last decades.

Despite being so close to the finishing line, we are in danger of moving backward.

Testing has fallen in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cases have been rising in Afghanistan and Pakistan, where wild polio remains endemic. And there is a risk of spread in Africa after three decades of seeing no cases of wild polio.

To get back on track to achieving global eradication, the world needs better monitoring of polio. By not screening and testing for the virus sufficiently, we risk letting more cases go undetected and potentially spread to new regions.

In this article, we show which countries are falling short on these goals, and what needs to be done.

The largest mammals have always been at the greatest risk of extinction — this is still the case today

Looking at the average size of mammals over the last 1.5 million years, we see a clear trend: they’ve gotten much smaller. Very large mammal species, such as “straight-tusked elephants” and the Southern Mammoth, disappeared one by one.

Why has this happened?

The evidence points toward one main culprit: humans. Our small but big-brained hominid ancestors contributed to the extinction of some of Earth’s largest mammal species.

In this article, we look at the history of this “downsizing” of mammals, and discuss how the biggest mammals are still at the greatest risk of extinction today — but it doesn’t have to be this way.

Sweet dream

Upon waking, a woman said to her husband, "I just dreamt that you gave me a necklace of pearls. What do you think it means?"

The man smiled and kissed his wife. "You'll know tonight," he softly whispered.

That evening, the man came home with a small package which he gave to his wife. She jumped up and embraced him, and then settled on the couch to slowly and delicately unwrap the package.

It contained a book entitled, The Meaning of Dreams.


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Contact: Guy WAKSMAN
E-mail: guy.waksman(a)laposte.net

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